Emphasize their individuality, stand out and attract the attention of others, the fair sex try stylish hairstyles, expensive shoes, manicures and original jewelry. Many choose expensive earrings and rings made of gold and silver with precious metals. Others prefer products with hot or cold enamel. This jewelry is considered unique. Performing the hot enamel technique is considered a refined craftsmanship. Talented craftsmen make jewelry irresistible with her.
Variety of enamel jewelry
Enamel jewelry is distinguished by its special sophistication and beauty. Today, classic, avant-garde, ultra-modern rings and earrings made of silver and gold, decorated with enamel, are at the peak of popularity. Thanks to this original technique, craftsmen place real works of art on bracelets and pendants, worthy of admiration.
Jewelers incorporate creative ideas and experience, combine new metal processing technologies and produce colorful jewelry. colorthe range of these products can be varied. Enamel not only complements crafts, but also protects them from corrosion and mechanical damage. Over time, these jewelry do not lose their brilliance and brightness, they are not afraid of moisture, temperature changes and light.
The most important advantage of enamel jewelry is that they are original, emphasizing the individuality of their mistress.
What is enamelling
The production of jewelry covered with a kind of glaze has been set up massively. However, such jewelry is handmade. In the original version, each product is different from the other, so they are never repeated.
Professionals call enameling a layer of glass that melts easily on a metal surface. The composition and application of glaze may be different. There are several techniques for fixing the substance.
History of occurrence
Enamel was used for products even by the ancient Russians. They called her finift. She was decorated not only with jewelry, but also used for arts and crafts: they decorated bowls, goblets, caskets, caskets.
The oldest products with original glaze were found in Cyprus during excavations. Also, traces of this creativity were found in Egypt, India, Byzantium. Since the Byzantine Empire had close ties with Kievan Rus, this technique also came to our region.
In the 10th-11th century in the Middle East, ornaments were applied to utensils with hot enamel. The masters of the Byzantine Empire also applied it to the dishes.
The heyday of enamelling fell on XII-XVIcenturies. Then the Chinese emperors ordered to combine metal with casting. So enamel began to be applied to copper. For this, a special composition of blue color was created. Later, the technique in blue tones became the property of Chinese applied art. The Chinese enameling technique is popular all over the world. Patterns in the heavenly scale cover not only jewelry, but also boxes, saucers, cups, vases, glasses.
Later, the application of hot enamel began to be used not only for kitchen items, but also framed icons, mirrors, salaries with it. In the 19th-20th centuries, the Art Nouveau style became popular, when decorations and decorative items were decorated with artistic glaze. Chemistry has moved far ahead, and thanks to this, experts have developed a whole palette of shades of enamel.
Cloisonne jewelry hot enamel
The most elegant technique of hot enamel is cloisonné. First, a pattern is applied to a copper, silver or gold plate using thin wires. They act as a kind of partitions between which colored glaze is poured.
In the old days, this decoration technique was used instead of precious stones. In India, there are minankari jewelry, in which enamel variegation is combined with precious stones. Hindus add more metal ornament or chasing.
Chinese cloisonne enamel is exemplary. What kind of images you will not see on this patterned casting! Here are magical little animals, flowers, petals, bunches of grapes, ornate patterns. Many have enjoyed the enamel floor vases from China!
Stained glass enamel belongs to the partition technique. The principles of these two glazes are very similar. The gaps in the ornament lined with wire are filled with wet enamel. Then the product is dried and fired. To obtain a multi-color pattern, each shade of glaze is fired separately in a muffle furnace. The resulting fused enamel resembles glass.
The only difference between the stained glass technique and the cloisonne technique is that the former has a transparent structure when raised to the light. Cloisonne enamel has a metal base, so it does not show through.
The most ancient and easiest to manufacture is champlevé enamel, or "champlevé". It consists in creating grooves in the metal. The frosting itself is easy to apply. With its help, colored engravings are made, as well as grandiose images with alternating metal and enamel.
Most often copper is used as the starting metal, as it is soft and easy to make recesses in it. Their depth can be different, the color saturation depends on it. For the production of jewelry, already stamped blanks with recesses are used, into which enamel of different shades is only poured.
Transparent or through enamel
This glaze is used in jewelry with precious metals. It can be gold, platinum, silver. Such a metal covered with transparent enamel will shine through it and shine very strongly. The colors of the product will be very juicy. The metal under the transparent glaze does not tarnish and is protected from mechanicaldamage.
This glaze is also called opaque. Apply it to copper and tompak. Silent or opal enamels have a huge range of colors, so that the metal alternates with the color of the glaze.
There is something else between translucent and deaf enamelling. At different angles of light incidence, it changes from transparent to opal, resembling a play of light with modulations.
Hot enamel technology
Hot enamel jewelry has been used for a long time, and the process of making them is considered time-consuming. This type of enameling is a leader in the manufacture of jewelry and other products. Such a glaze is firmly attached to things, because it is baked in specialized ovens (muffle) and kept at a temperature of 600-800 ° C. The product is then cooled, cleaned and polished.
At first glance, the process seems simple, but patience for such a case will not hurt. In its initial form, the enamel has the form of a powder. It includes specially selected charge materials: quartz sand, chalk, feldspar, clay. Also in this composition are soda, borax, potash and excipients. The presence of dyes, oxidizers, and opalants in it is mandatory to obtain an opal state.
First, in a special container, dilute the enamel powder with water to the density of sour cream. Then this mass fills the desired areas of jewelry. Before firing, the product is dried to release air bubbles. Under the influence of temperature, the enamel fuses and becomes like glass(transparent or deaf). Then the craft is polished and subjected to repeated firing. The end result is a perfectly smooth surface.
For multi-colored and cloisonne glazes, firing is done strictly alternately. White enamel is fired the longest, followed by pink and blue. Then fill the cells with green and black glaze. Red glaze is considered less heat resistant, it is the least aged.
The enamel mass is poured very evenly to make a flawless surface. Depending on the complexity, hot enamel jewelry can be fired from 5 to 100 times. It is necessary to monitor the firing time and temperature very precisely. This is how unique masterpieces are obtained, existing only in a single copy.
Types of cold enamelling
Cold enamel is a kind of fiberglass, it is easy to apply. There are three types of cold enamelling:
- Two-component cold mix. It is simply poured on decoration. First, the mass is diluted to the consistency of a cream by adding a catalyst to it. Then, using a tool, it is applied to a metal surface. In order for the applied mixture to harden, it is kept for 48 hours at room temperature, then it is kept at a temperature of 70 °C for 20 hours. The surface will look like ceramic. Shades of this glaze can be mixed.
- Heat curing glaze. It is similar to hot pouring, but is fired at a temperature of 160 ° C. A distinctive feature is that it is not polished, so as not to leave matte marks on it. This glaze is not very strong. If you press hard on it with something, thenwill leave a dent.
- Light cured fill. This process is similar to filling teeth with liquid paste. The applied glaze is irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp, after which the enamel hardens. With the help of this technique, chips on jewelry are most often repaired. The light-curing mixture is quite hard, considered to be between cold and hot enamel.
Tricks of choosing quality products
Enamelling is a painstaking process, so decorations in this technique are not cheap. They are considered premium products. When buying jewelry with enamel, you should pay attention to the presence of cracks, chips, scratches, bubbles. Gold is most suitable for it, because it does not deform when heated. Sterling silver hot enamel earrings look great. Copper gizmos are also quite in harmony with vitreous glaze. The storage and wearing of enamel jewelry requires the following rules:
- do not expose jewelry to impacts, protect from friction with metal objects and surfaces;
- watch out for temperature fluctuations to avoid direct sunlight;
- put on jewelry after applying makeup;
- avoid contact with chemicals;
- wipe the enamel with a soft cloth;
- remove earrings and rings with glaze before going to the pool, shower, bath;
- choose jewelry from famous brands (Sokolov, Sunlight).
Differences between hot and cold enamel
Hot enamelmore durable and the price for it is higher than for a cold one. In cold enamelling, there is another technique - enamel. After its application, it spreads in multi-colored patterns, like gasoline on water. It turns out peculiar color stains.
Hot pouring is more even because it is strong. On cold enamel, there are irregularities, since it is not polished. Still hot, the icing glistens brightly.
Cold mixes also have advantages. They are characterized by simplicity, unpretentiousness, plasticity. For the manufacture of such jewelry does not require special tools. Cold enameling is suitable for all alloys.
Enamel on gold and silver
Stunning collections of gold and silver jewelry with enamel make the hearts of the most sophisticated connoisseurs of beauty tremble. Among the huge selection of earrings, rings, bracelets, the harmony of juicy shades, faceted gems pleases the eye. Classics in the form of black and white are also in trend today.
Silver pendants, enamel pendants look simply masterpiece. Coated rings are produced in massive and refined. They are sometimes inlaid with stones. Original sets with enamel will become a decoration for girls of any age and status. Smooth, even rings look great like wedding rings, on which a Greek pattern is applied.
Who produces hot enamel jewelry
Feminine colored jewelry is represented by several Czech jewelry brands. The most famous of them is Style Avenue. Czech specialists are experimenting withcloisonne cold enamelling.
Italian products with glaze are popular. Here are the most famous firms: Damiani, Bulgari, Garavelli. Italian products surprise with their shapes in the form of flowers, buds and butterflies.
Georgian enamel products are called minankari. Shades in them pass very smoothly. It is suitable for pendants and rings.
Sunlight silver jewelry is especially popular in Russia. The surface of this enamel is very smooth, and the ornaments are made with smooth lines.