For centuries, one of the most expensive and exquisite jewelry was considered a gold necklace. It has always been not only fashionable, but also a status accessory, demonstrating to others how we althy its owner is.
Let's try to tell what kind of jewelry these are, and about the precious stones used in them.
What is this?
First of all, it is worth noting that the word "necklace" - borrowed, came to us from the French language and is translated as "dressed around the neck", or "collar". A modern gold necklace (photo below) is a neck decoration of a rather complex design, consisting of several parts, the largest of which is the central one. It can be either solid or composed of several elements.
A bit of history
Since ancient times, people have sought to decorate themselves. Even the ancient Egyptian pharaohs wore a massive gold necklace, symbolizing power. According to ancient sources, made of many plates and covered with enamel, suchthe decoration was so heavy that a special counterweight was attached to it on the back so that you could move. Similar jewelry was worn by noble warriors of Ancient Rome, and in the Middle Ages by rulers and we althy nobles. Necklaces became an independent element of costume jewelry relatively recently - in the 18th century. At the end of the 19th century, the Danish princess Alexandra introduced a new type of decoration, the so-called "dog collar", which tightly covered the throat.
Already in the 11th century, a gold necklace was a privileged decoration of Russian high society and the nobility. In the 13th-14th centuries, such jewelry made from cheaper materials was already widespread among the common population. Russian women's and men's clothing of the 15th–17th centuries was often decorated with necklaces, which meant decorating the gate with precious stones and pearls.
Features of classification
No matter what metals necklaces are made of, they are necessarily equipped with a clasp and differ:
- by length;
- close to the neck;
- presence or absence of precious stones, their types and attachment features.
Modern gold necklace can have a variety of sizes: from 32 to 100 or more centimeters. Consider the most common options:
- "Rope" is the longest piece of jewelry, consisting of miniature gold elements connecting preciousstones.
- "Opera" is a gold necklace that falls below the chest and is about 85 cm long. This type of jewelry has been in fashion relatively recently, and the model in several chains is considered the most spectacular, where several links are replaced with bright gems.
- "Matine" - usually a gold necklace without inserts, up to 60 cm long, for daily wear. Wear it over a dress or blouse to emphasize the elegance of the image. There are also brighter, more pompous options for going out and celebrations.
- "Princess" is a classic gold necklace for an evening dress with a shallow neckline. The maximum length is 47 cm and it usually consists of a chain of beautiful and fashionable weaving, with a pendant attached as standard. This gold necklace pictured below is perfect for everyday wear.
- "Choker" is a classic piece of jewelry 35-40 cm long, elegantly framing a woman's neck and lying freely on it. The British Queen Victoria was not indifferent to this type of necklace, and the Princess of Wales masked her scar with it. Unfortunately, such an ornament will not suit ladies with a small or short neck. The design of the "strangler" (this is how the word c hoker is translated from English) can be the most diverse. In the traditional version, the main decor is based on the front, and just a chain goes to the back. Its links come in various shapes: round, triangular, oval or fantasy, allowing you to create a strict or feminine look. girth of itjewelry can be changed thanks to special length regulators.
- The smallest in length, no more than 32 cm, necklace - "collar". Since it wraps around the neck quite tightly, sometimes it is also called "collar". Usually this is a gold necklace with pearls or densely covered with other precious stones. Such a piece of jewelry is perfect for a long low-cut evening dress and a high hairstyle, emphasizing the beauty and length of the owner's neck. In addition to women's, there is also a men's collar necklace, which serves as an indicator of the nobility and status of the owner, such as, for example, symbolic chains adorning mayors, as well as other noble and aristocratic people.
Considering a gold necklace, the types in which it is represented, one cannot fail to mention such a combined piece of jewelry as a "transformer". Usually it consists of two separate pieces, such as a bracelet and a chain, and has special detachable decorative elements that allow you to increase the length.
Regardless of the length and material from which they are made, all necklaces are necessarily equipped with a clasp and fit to the neck with different density. Depending on the shape of these jewelry and the types of gems attached to them, there are several groups.
The following varieties are distinguished:
- Hoop necklace: can be made from gold or any other precious material and is usually decorated with a discreet pendant. It's tightfits around the neck and will go with most office style items for everyday wear.
- "Plastron" (translated from French means "bib"). This is a rather voluminous necklace that covers most of the chest and neck.
- "Clasp" is a special type of jewelry, the clasp of which is located in front and is the dominant decorative element.
- "Skvalage" - tightly covering the neck, a ribbon of gold or fabric, richly decorated with precious stones. In the center it is decorated with a pendant that descends into a dimple on the neck.
- "Riviera" is the most beautiful decoration, but only for the evening or special occasions. It can be a gold necklace with diamonds, garnets, sapphires, or any other precious stones set so that their joints cannot be seen.
- Necklace obtained by interlacing many chains of gold, different in thickness and weaving. Such jewelry can be decorated with pearls, inserts from other precious metals and stones.
A wide variety of natural and artificial stones can be used to decorate jewelry.
For the fair sex of any age, a variety of necklaces with diamonds will suit. Such jewelry always looks stylish and high-status, emphasizing the excellent taste of the owner.
Neck jewelry with rubies or emeralds is also considered a "timeless classic" and indicates we alth andhigh position in the society of his mistress.
Gold necklace with garnet, a blood-colored stone, looks less defiant, but nevertheless elegant and elegant. Wearing jewelry with such a stone, the lady declares herself as a strong and independent person striving for success.
Young, ambitious and purposeful girls will suit necklaces decorated with pearls or sapphires. There is an opinion that they help to find their destiny.
Features of alloys
In the process of making most jewelry, including various types of necklaces, various metals are added to gold to make it more durable and resistant to damage. Such additives not only improve performance, but also affect the color of jewelry. The sample of jewelry is determined depending on their amount contained in the gold alloy. Depending on the metals introduced into the melt to make a necklace, it can be of different colors and shades. When gold is fused with copper and silver, a yellow color is obtained. Increasing the amount of copper will result in a darker shade, while adding silver will result in a lighter one. When palladium, platinum or nickel is added, white gold is obtained.
To maintain a noble appearance, jewelry is sometimes coated with a special rhodium compound, which must be renewed regularly.