Clothes and shoes of the northern peoples do not differ in colors and designs. The main material for its tailoring is deer skin. The climate of the north assumes negative temperatures and strong winds. Reindeer breeding is the main activity of the local people. The skin of these animals is the best material for sewing shoes. About the features of tailoring, practicality and convenience of shoes made of deerskin will be described in this article.
Features of the skin of the animal
Deer hair looks like a hollow tube that helps to keep warm. In winter, when temperatures drop to minus 50 degrees and below, not every animal can live even a few hours. The skin of a deer has a unique property - to become monolithic, this is achieved by expanding the villi. In winter, its coat becomes monochromatic, mostly white. Deer skin has the strength and elasticity needed to make shoes.
Women's shoes made of deer skins
Nenets women sew shoes from deer skins, which are called pima, theyare female and male. These products are made in the following way - the stocking is sewn with the fur inside, the lower part of the pima is sewn with the pile out of the kamus (skin taken from the shin of a deer). When sewing men's shoes for the sole, the skin from the forehead of an animal was used to give strength.
Men's pimas are everyday and weekend, and can serve their owner for a lifetime. Since hard work means wear-resistant clothing, only the best material is selected when sewing such shoes. The camus is sewn with reindeer veins or strong threads, the front part is decorated with drawings.
When decorating shoes made of deerskin, ornaments are used, each of which carries a deep meaning. It's like commandments that tell you what should not be allowed and how to behave in order to remain a worthy person.
What is the name of deerskin shoes, each northern people has their own answer to this question.
The peoples of the Khanty call low pims - kitties. They were made from reindeer skin, summer versions were sewn from the skin of the same animal.
Komi residents wear boots of medium height made of reindeer skin, they are called tzptski, they are sewn with wool outside.
Shoes made of reindeer skin, the name of which is familiar to many - high fur boots - the Even national part of the attire. They are made of kamus, wool outside. There are both high and low models, decorated with beads and thread tassels.
Winter shoes made of reindeer skins in combination with a tarpaulin on the bottom - such products were used earlier and are now used as overalls when working innorthern regions. Most people know such shoes from films about the war with Nazi Germany, Soviet pilots wore them.
The process of preparing skins for sewing deerskin shoes is long. The skin is soaked in sawdust throughout the day. After soaking in shavings, they proceed to scraping with a scraper on a special board. The core is scraped off until the skin becomes soft. For a more thorough treatment, use flour, rub it into the skin and continue to scrape.
The veins from the back of a deer are used to stitch the finished material. They are dried and then kneaded. Unlike thread, tendons resist moisture, making them a more practical material for making shoes.
Deerskin shoes (named taboki) consist of two layers of leather. The inner stocking is made from the skin of a one-year-old deer slaughtered during the summer months. This material is softer and lighter.
The first polar expeditions took as a basis the experience of the northern peoples in tailoring and footwear. The costume could consist of woolen linen, a shirt with fur inside, stockings made of deerskin, which were worn under long boots made of camus of the same animal. The main task was to keep warm and allow moisture to go outside. In order to achieve the effect of ventilation, the Eskimos wear loose parka jackets on their naked bodies.
Deer skin clothes and shoes can save livesa person who has fallen through the ice, due to the fact that each hair has the shape of a tube, hollow inside. So, a shepherd or a hunter who has fallen into the water can count on help for several hours - a unique jacket and boots will keep him on the surface.
The outsole on the shoe, made of skin, will not allow shoes to slip. For example, many hunters and fishermen use this unique material to cover their skis, which allows them to move forward with ease and prevent them from rolling back when climbing uphill.
The skin of a deer is also used as a rug that can be put on the snow and sit on it. So, for example, shepherds caught in a storm dug holes for themselves and lay down in them, calmly waiting out the bad weather thanks to the unique properties of the pile.
Where is deer skin used today?
As many centuries ago, numerous peoples of the north wear clothes and shoes made from the skin of this animal. But not only the peoples of the Far North enjoy the convenience and practicality of these products. The market is saturated with products made from this material. Do not forget that such things are not only warm, but also light. For example, in small neat boots, the child will always be protected from the cold. And a person in old age will appreciate such a gift.
In the conditions of a modern city, where chemical reagents are everywhere poured in winter, such shoes will not last long, but for walks outside the city or in the countryside, there is no better option. A special cut and ornament will not go unnoticedproducts from the peoples of the Far North.
Fashion houses periodically turn to the unique design and ornamentation of these clothes in their collections. Each drawing is a story and a story about a person and his ancestors. The magic and shamanism of these peoples does not leave minds alone in all ages.
What is the result
Deerskin shoes have many names, but they all have the same functionality. The uniqueness of this material allowed the peoples of the north to adapt to living conditions in sub-zero temperatures. And for pilots and researchers - to climb into the most remote corners of the planet and return alive and he althy. Now equipment, thanks to modern technology, allows the use of synthetic materials, but ancient traditions and attachments to them attract people, prompting them to wear the clothes of their ancestors again.